A Rebirth in France
In mid-17th century France, circumstances were ripe for new birth in the Church. ¹
Around 1646, Fr. John Pierre Médaille, SJ, kept meeting kindred spirits who wanted to nurture their contemplative spirit and dedicate their lives in responding to the poverty surrounding them. They were innovators in a new form of religious and on October 15, 1650, Henri de Maupas, bishop of LePuy, France, gave his blessing to this Little Design, as they called it.
The First 100 Years
During the first 100 years, sisters were present in cities, towns, and rural areas.
These unpretentious women served the neighbor in simplicity and did not appear important enough to enter into the annals of the nation or Church. They did not define themselves in terms of a particular apostolate or lifestyle and were ready to respond to any need in any place.
They ministered in parishes, cared for orphans, sheltered abandoned women, opened schools, administered hospitals, visited jails and taught manual arts to women and children to help them become financially independent. Although there are no precise records, it is clear that from 1650 to 1789, the Congregation continued to grow and adapt to the needs of their “dear neighbors.” The mission of the Sisters of St. Joseph was to form community and “undertake all the spiritual and corporal works of mercy of which women are capable.”²
Before the French Revolution
A steadily growing community of adept women devoted to bettering the dear neighbor:
This is the congregation into which Jeanne Fontbonne entered the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1778 and at the age of 26, she became superior of the Monistrol community.
While the seeds of the Revolution were germinating, the sisters at Monistrol continued their mission by partnering with Madame Chantemule, a noble lady of the region who provided funds to establish a workshop. Here they gathered women “without distinction”: women who had the resources to work on behalf of the poor, mothers who needed to work for their children, and young women who were apparently on their own. This group brought together people who, because of their differences, would rarely come together as equals.
After the French Revolution
The French Revolution violently disrupted the lives of The Sisters of St. Joseph.
The Congregation was outlawed. The right to teach was withdrawn and the sisters were denounced as unpatriotic fanatics and enemies of the Revolution.
In the Reign of Terror, nearly all sisters were imprisoned. The community was expelled from their property. Sisters were imprisoned on trumped up charges without trial and some were guillotined. Those who escaped the wrath of the Revolution returned to their families, went into hiding, or simply disappeared into French society. Several years after the revolution, Sister St. John Fontbonne responded to the call by Napoleon’s uncle, Cardinal Fesch, and in 1807 became the superior of all the houses in the Lyon Diocese. While a congregation with centralized governance was a radical shift from Médaille’s Little Design, it responded to the needs of the time, thus perfectly aligned to Médaille’s inspiration.
Journey to America
Instead of conceiving a plan and making it happen, she opened herself so that the plan of God could take flesh and become history in her and in the neighbor.
This is the congregation into which Jeanne Fontbonne entered the Sisters of St. Joseph in 1778 and at the age of 26, she became superior of the Monistrol community.
³The Countess de la Rochejaquelin, a wealthy woman with connections to nobility throughout Europe, was a benefactor of the Society of the Propagation of the Faith. Her enthusiasm for the missions inspired her dream to send Sisters of St. Joseph to Missouri. In a letter to Bishop Rosati, of St. Louis, she wrote, “… perhaps you do not know the Sisters of St. Joseph….The East of France is alive with the activity of these Sisters….the spirit of the Congregation of Saint Joseph is something without precedent.”³ Evidence leads to the conclusion that the Sisters of St. Joseph went to Missouri because of the tenacity of the countess. Mother St. John Fontbonne accepted her proposition and, at the age of 77, adopted a plan that was not hers, but which had appeared in her path with undeniable signs of being the will of God.
On January 4, 1836, sisters departed by ship for America, arriving in St. Louis on March 25. They were part of the great missionary movement of the 19th century. The courage, fidelity, and self-emptying love of these women who embraced the unknown gave birth to our congregation in the New World.
Requests grew rapidly for sisters to serve in schools. Within a few days of their arrival in each place, they opened schools. The third mission of the Sisters of St. Joseph in America was St. Joseph School for Negro Girls in 1845. Thus, the sisters entered into the heart of the most painful conflict in the history of the United States – the institutionalized violence of racism. When they confronted prejudice and violence, the little community discerned between the adaptation necessary to settle into a new culture and a prophetic stance that would denounce a system of institutionalized sin.
St. Louis, Philadelphia, NY, and Boston
The numbers of sisters grew quickly in the 1840s and 1850s and so did their outreach in St. Louis and beyond.
A bold move was made to expand beyond the St. Louis diocese by accepting the invitation to send sisters to Philadelphia in 1847. Their adaptation and service-oriented activities enabled them to carve a niche in American society and public life that reduced bigotry and supported the growing Catholic population.⁴
The sisters in Philadelphia sent sisters to New York and, in 1873, thirty-seven years later, the New York sisters responded to a call to send sisters to Boston.
Settling in Boston
In 1873, the Sisters of St. Joseph from Brooklyn came to Boston at the invitation of Father Thomas Magennis,
pastor of St. Thomas Parish in Jamaica Plain and Roxbury. Even before the church was finished, he began his search for religious who would start a school.
He talked with Archbishop Williams about securing Sisters to teach the children of his parish. The Archbishop opened the Catholic Directory, ran his finger on a page saying, “Sisters of St. Joseph… in charge of many Parochial Schools.” Father Magennis visited New York to see the sisters in action. He was so impressed by their work that he asked Archbishop Williams to ask the Motherhouse at Flushing, NY, for sisters. Arrangements were made for the Sisters to come as soon as possible to take charge of the school.
On October 2, 1873, four sisters, with Sister Regis Casserly as superior, arrived in Boston. They settled in a “cozy” five-room house that had been moved from another part of the village. Four days after arriving, they opened a school in the church basement. Two hundred girls applied the first day.
The fledgling community led by the 30-year-old Mother Regis seemed very well situated. In 1874 the sisters opened a second school and were also involved in that favorite ministry of Father Médaille, a sodality, allowing them to share their spirituality with the laity. Through her years of leadership of the Boston Sisters of St. Joseph, Sister Regis Casserly would prove to be a woman with a keen grasp of what needed to be done and the ability to accomplish it. When Mother Mary Regis died in 1917, the community she had begun with three companions had grown to 400 sisters and were teaching in 24 schools. Thus, she left the Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston with more sisters, more missions, and more stability than she and Father Magennis ever dreamed possible in 1873 when they first met as two 30-year-old descendants of Irish immigrants who hoped to serve the Church and the people in Boston.
The Dawn of New Ministries
Near the turn of the century, the Boston Pilot newspaper refers to the Sisters of St. Joseph saying, “their rule opens them to all the good works of which the intelligence, strength, and zeal of women are capable.”⁵
In 1899, the sisters began two new ministries…
The Daly Industrial School in Dorchester welcomed girls who were “deprived of their parents’ aid.”⁶ The Boston School for the Deaf educated children to be “conversant with all that the world offers those who speak and hear.”⁷ Both ministries carried on the original spirit of the sisters – a mission of universal love that embraces all without distinction. The first quarter of this century was a time of national growth and expansion. Unifying love flared in the growth of vocations that corresponded to requests to initiate new elementary and secondary schools throughout the archdiocese. When Mother Domitilla opened Regis College in 1927, her mission was to provide a quality education rooted in values.
She wrote, “We must espouse the quest for academic excellence, instill an appreciation for Gospel values of social justice and peace, and exhibit in our lives a respect for all life on earth.”⁸
The Birth of the Liturgical Movement
A profound shift from individual piety to praying with the universal Church took place after two papal encyclicals in 1943 and 1947.⁹ Thus began the Liturgical Movement which found strong support from the Sisters of St. Joseph.
For more than 15 years, Sisters Francille, Reginald, and Tarcisius (Anna Mary Kelly) edited a journal titled Mediator, an archdiocesan publication aimed to teach the importance of full and active participation in the liturgy. By 1956 Mediator had readers in 48 states and 13 countries.
On the Sister’s 75th anniversary in 1948, Cardinal Richard J. Cushing remarked, “Theirs is the traditional story of small beginnings, of hard pioneer work, that grew with years of toil and sacrifice. The first Sisters courageously and confidently embraced the seemingly insurmountable difficulties common to all great works. They were building for the future… Today there is hardly a section of the Archdiocese where they are not known and loved for their contribution…” ¹⁰
Spreading to New Mexico
On the 300th anniversary of our Le Puy, France, foundation, our first mission in Santa Rosa, New Mexico opened. The pastor had written to 115 communities asking for sisters to staff a school…
…All replies were negative. A priest in the parish, a native of Lynn, MA, had been a student of Mother Euphrasia in grade two. In desperation he wrote her and received a positive response. The pastor sent an immediate telegram, “Your thrilling letter fills us with joy and expectation.” Shortly after their arrival, he wrote again, “What thrills me is the way the sisters have with the little ones…They are doing the very thing I most wanted: integrating God with all the children are taught. This is a real tribute to the way the sisters have impressed everyone.”
Later, ministries flourished in Santa Fe, Albuquerque, and Clovis, New Mexico.
The encyclical On the Renewal of Religious Life was published in October 1965. It stated, “The adaptation and renewal of the religious life includes both the constant return to the sources of all Christian life and to the original spirit of the institutes and their adaptation to the changed conditions of our time.” ¹¹
From 1956-1966 Liturgical Lectures hosted at Fontbonne Academy and elsewhere prepared sisters for profound transformation to come after Vatican II. These monthly lectures, led by prominent theologians, ecumenists, and Taizé brothers, were attended by more than 500 sisters eager to enhance their ministry. Thus, the Sisters of St. Joseph were poised for this renewal. “They realized that even if they had not known how to articulate it clearly, their identity as Sisters of St. Joseph was rooted in relationships and orientated by the mission to promote unity of neighbor with neighbor and neighbor with God.” ¹²
This has become a lifelong personal and communal process.
In 1965, Cardinal Cushing approached Mother Catalina to ask if she would send sisters to Peru. The two were lifelong friends and she replied, “Your Eminence, I’d be happy to mission six sisters to Lima and I’m sure their pastors would be happy to hire teachers to
replace them.” ¹³
When the sisters boarded the plane for Lima, Peru, the Cardinal said, “Sisters, yours will be a secondary position. You are in business to go out of business. You are to train Peruvian teachers in San Ricardo Parish so the Peruvians can assume responsibility of the school.”
This they accomplished within eight years. During the next 27 years, other sisters joined them. A team consisting of pastor, sisters, and Peruvian laypeople planned how to empower parishioners to assume responsibility for the life of their parish. By 1991 a native priest became pastor and native parishioners continued their active participation.¹⁴
Formation of the CSSJ US Federation
As early as 1951, Pope Pius XII called sisters beyond the separateness of individual congregations to collaboration. The U.S. Federation of the Sisters of St. Joseph was officially founded in 1966. Its first major project was the creation of a research team to study the congregation’s origins in France. Julie Harkins, CSJ Boston, was one of the “powerhouses moving the project forward.” ¹⁵
Speaking of the initial days of our Federation, Kathy McCluskey, CSJ, commented, “I wonder if the Council Fathers could have imagined that this call to renewal would have positioned the Sisters of St. Joseph in the U.S. and around the world for this moment of chaos and hope. The miracle was in the collaboration.”
Along with most other women religious, each of our communities responded with vigor to the invitation to renew by returning to the Scripture and reading the signs of the times. But when it came to plumbing our own CSSJ resources, we turned to one another. “
Changing Habits, changing names, changing lifestyles… In the early 1970s the Congregation was in the throes of implementing Vatican II. This Council called religious women and men to renew their life in community by capturing their original spirit, pray with Scripture and seriously consider “the signs of the times” in all deliberations. As Boston CSJs we were very committed to this new Spirit that was moving within and around us.
Signs of this new Spirit were visible when sisters changed from wearing a “traditional” habit to dressing like their neighbors, as did our first sisters. We also changed from the names given after entering to names given at baptism in keeping with Vatican II’s emphasis on the baptismal call of all. In addition, many sisters changed their lifestyles by discerning with leaders regarding their choice of ministry and living situations.
Small communities sprung up around the city where the sisters lived among their neighbors in a spirit of prayer and presence much as did our first sisters in the regions around Le Puy, France.
During these challenging days, there were initiatives to sustain the congregation as a cohesive whole. A. Catherine Murphy, CSJ, then president, knew instinctively the need for a renewed spirituality to support this emerging “way of Life” and recognized that other supports would be essential to move from a hierarchical way of living to shared decision-making. Sisters were sent to international programs for initial and ongoing formation. As these sisters returned, their new learning spawned a variety of exciting initiatives to enhance the spirituality, mission, and charism of the community.
One of these initiatives happened in collaboration with the Center for Planned Change, a renewal program that was designed and embraced to respect members’ differing perspectives. Differences were examined in light of Scripture, Charism, and Mission. Every sister was invited to participate in a congregation-wide process that provided maximum participation in shaping decision-making for the future.
In 1971 the Rerum Novarum Revisited [RNR] Committee began to involve the Congregation in many of the critical issues facing the poor
and oppressed. ¹⁶
Justice and Peace
The Justice and Peace Office was established in 1986 to give public voice to the social consciousness of the Congregation on critical issues. The office is responsible for coordinating our public response to critical social issues — especially those that affect human life and dignity — and our interconnectedness with all creation. This office gives public voice to the social consciousness of our sisters, associates, and agrégées by promoting awareness, encouraging reflection, initiating appropriate responses, and calls to action.
In subsequent years corporate stances were developed on:
- 1984: the use of nuclear weapons & non-violence,
- Commitment to the poor,
- 1992: respect for Earth,
- 2009: anti-human trafficking.
- We also join with LCWR and the CSSJ U.S. Federation in advocating and speaking on critical social issues as they arise.
During this time, sisters renewed their conviction of the primacy of prayer, both personal and communal. In 1974, St. Joseph Retreat Center in Cohasset, MA opened. Eventually it became a place of prayer for women and men of all faiths seeking to deepen their spiritual life.
For 42 years, the Retreat Center was an investment to spread our mission. We made it available to all people…the wide world, the Dear Neighbor…
— Joan McCarthy, CSJ
1970s & 1980s:
During the 1970s and 1980s, our outreach continued to widen as Sisters of St. Joseph founded new ministries.
These are a few of the ministries:
- Bridge Over Troubled Waters, a social service agency for youth on the streets of Boston;
- a group home for girls in Quincy;
- the Archdiocesan Office of AIDS Ministry, which included Seton Manor and extensive HIV/AIDS education ministry throughout the archdiocese;
- and a religious education program for mothers of children living with Down Syndrome, which began at Sacred Heart, Weymouth, and eventually spread throughout the archdiocese.
The 1970s witnessed greater collaboration with lay partners. Dedicated laywomen and men chose to minister in diocesan schools, in schools and colleges we had founded throughout the archdiocese, and at Bethany Health Care Center.
The Literacy Connection
We responded to a need in our Allston/Brighton neighborhood…
In the 1980s, new peoples were entering the Greater Boston area. Many were Southeast Asian immigrants. Four sisters began The Literacy Connection to help integrate these neighbors into the area by teaching English Literacy…
…and helping them connect with much-needed services. This small beginning grew to offer volunteer services of sisters, associates, and lay women and men.
As needs grew, we eventually added a Citizenship Program. In the words of one student, “I have been coming to English class for three years…. My teacher is Sister Helen and she gives me new and challenging work every week.”
– Mariana L.
We listened to the cry of Earth, Our Common Home.
As individuals, as local communities, as a Congregation, as peoples of the earth, we responded to the cry of the earth and, in the spirit of our charism of unity and reconciliation, publicly committed to transforming our relationship with the earth and all creation.
We consider our Corporate Stance on Behalf of the Earth our bedrock of commitment for caring for our common home.
This call has deepened, grown, and expanded throughout the past 30 years. In 2002, we renovated our Motherhouse residences with the goal of creating a green building using recyclable products — as well as recycling over 90% of the materials removed from the original building. Today, we continue this commitment through our participation in the Laudato Si’ Action Platform.
We were called forth by needs of an immigrant population in the Roslindale neighborhood.
In 1873, our first sisters responded to the needs of an immigrant population in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston. As part of our 125th Anniversary Celebration, we sought a way to expand that presence in a way that responded to current needs.
By 2000 we had assessed the emerging needs and purchased space in the nearby Roslindale area of Boston and named it Casserly House. Modeled after the work of Mother Regis Casserly and our first sisters, this ministry of presence serves a culturally and ethnically mixed neighborhood populated by many new immigrants.
Today, Casserly House continues to listen and respond to the needs of the neighborhood; to be a place of welcome and connection for immigrants, and a collaborative partner on neighborhood issues in Roslindale. It is a ministry of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston rooted in the neighborhood and open to the world.
The Hospitality House: An Ever-Widening Circle
Globally, the Sisters of St. Joseph have a long history of living among their neighbors in a spirit of hospitality which connects neighbor with neighbor and neighbor with God. In fidelity to this tradition, and in light of emerging needs, the Hospitality House opened, first in Forest Hills, and later moving to Dedham.
This house offered a presence in the local neighborhood, a place of welcome to women considering whether life as a vowed religious would be a viable life choice. The house also provided temporary living for college and high school groups from outside Boston who choose this area as a place for community service.
As the sisters living at the hospitality house connected with local groups, they invited them to join for evenings of prayer, quiet prayer, and theological reflection.
Calling Forth Charism Carriers: Corporation for Sponsored Ministries
Our sponsored ministries have been responding to needs in the Boston archdiocese since the founding of Mount Saint Joseph Academy in 1885. In the late 1980’s, to ensure the growth of our ministries well into the future, we began separately incorporating each ministry while retaining oversight of the mission.
In 2000, we established The Corporation for Sponsored Ministries of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston, Inc. This entrusts the governance of each ministry, their financial well-being, and the furtherance of the CSJ mission to our partners in mission on the local Boards, the administration, and staff of the ministry. They are CSJ charism carriers. Safeguarding the mission, the assessment of the quality of ministry, and nurturing mission integration within each ministry is the responsibility of the Corporation for Sponsored Ministries.
We are proud of the positive impact of each of our ministries on the communities they serve, and the ways that the CSJ mission is alive in each ministry. Regis College, while separately incorporated in the 1960s, has its own corporation with the same responsibilities as the Corporation for Sponsored Ministries.
Our current Sponsored Ministries include:
- Bethany Health Care Center
- Bethany Hill Place
- Fontbonne, the Early College of Boston
- Jackson-Walnut Park School
- Regis College
An astounding flare of love unites us with Sisters of St. Joseph in the US and globally. Together with Sisters of St. Joseph around the world, we gave birth to the International Centre in Le Puy.
Sisters and lay partners from many countries are now pilgrims to the place of our birth, experience the founding spirit, and are energized for the challenges of the present moment. As part of the U.S. Federation of Sisters of St. Joseph we are becoming closer to the global “Family of St. Joseph” through a variety of international connections. We discover anew the breadth of the gift that has been given from the beginning, this charism and purpose we share, the strength of this CSSJ family.
As we unite in the Federation, we strengthen one another’s religious life. We join together in initial and ongoing formation programs. We are members of the UN NGO, we work together to combat trafficking, racism, bigotry, and many other issues – we are working together to realize God’s dream of inclusive love.
The Women’s Table: A Dream, a Conviction, and Awareness of a Donor
From the earliest days, The Women’s Table imagined something that would enhance the visibility of our CSJ mission and ministry in the neighborhood. It began with a dream, a conviction, and the awareness of an anonymous donor who spoke of the impact of the Sisters of St. Joseph on his daughters.
He explained that, while there is a common thread, sometimes it is difficult to identify that thread. He suggested creating a women’s center where these common threads could become more visible and inspire others, like himself, to support our mission.
During meetings to envision how this dream could become reality, we acknowledged that outreach is not new for us in a fragmented world that needs our charism. In 1650, in Le Puy, France, Jean-Pierre Médaille, SJ, encouraged our sisters to go to the various sections of the city, discern the needs, and do all of which women are capable to meet those needs.
In fidelity to these origins, three questions framed the discussion: What do we want to happen? Who is not being served? How do we listen to the neighbor – without distinction?
Thus, in October 2008, the new office of “Outreach to Women” opened and Mary Rita Weschler, CSJA, began the adventure of working with others to identify unmet needs. Within a short time, it became clear that a new name, “The Women’s Table” better described this growing ministry. As our first sisters gathered in a simple kitchen with themselves and women of their neighborhood, so the Women’s Table continues to offer circle gatherings for women of varied backgrounds and experiences.
Responding to the Spiritual Hunger in People’s Hearts
We began St. Joseph Spiritual Ministries [SJSM] in 2013 in response to the growing spiritual hunger in people’s hearts. The mission of SJSM — strengthening spiritual offerings for the community — continuously evolves to better serve the ever-changing needs of its growing members.
Through this ministry, Sisters of St. Joseph, Associates, Agrégées, and Partners in Mission share their CSJ spirituality through spiritual direction, retreats, mornings and afternoons of prayer and daily encounters with the dear neighbor. Reflecting on her experience of SJSM, one participant comments, “Participating in the mornings and afternoons of prayer offered by SJSM has given me a new sense of mindfulness in prayer and ministry. It is a way of being good to myself and enhancing my spiritual life; an opportunity to go deeper and look at the journey of life in a more trusting way.”
SJSM continues to welcome women and men of all faith traditions and cultures who seek a deeper relationship with God, self, and all creation. In collaboration with other dedicated people, we are committed to offering diverse spiritual opportunities in various locations for individuals and groups. In January 2020 SJSM relocated its center to our property in Newton.
The Holy Spirit is always doing something new. Gradually we are realizing that the spirit is calling us to recognize the wider community of people gifted with the grace, or charism, for expressing God’s inclusive love in our immediate environments and our world.
One expression of this is our Agrégée Relationship. The term Agrégée dates from our roots in 17th century France when some women were unable to live in community. Therefore, they lived their life of commitment to the spirit of the Sisters of St. Joseph as single women throughout the French countryside.
In 2017 we welcomed four women to begin our Agrégée formation process. In 2019 they made a vow of fidelity to the charism with the Congregation in the spirit of the Gospel. Our Boston Agrégées continue this early tradition as single women desirous of being one with a Congregation that is dedicated to the profound love of God and neighbor without distinction. They are called by God to express their commitment through a lifelong non-canonical vow to God of fidelity to the charism of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston in all the activities of their daily lives and work.
While continuing to live the lifestyle of lay women, they seek to be in communion with vowed women who commit their lives to the mission of Jesus “that all may be one,” and they desire to share the communal life inasmuch as they are able. They participate actively in the larger circle of the charism with associates and partners in Mission. This form of relationship continues to grow.
A Gathering of Friends
In June 2019, our Motherhouse was alive with energy and excitement as 125 sisters welcomed 145 women who had formerly been Sisters of St. Joseph.
Some had remained connected; others had been absent from our lives for quite a few years. Joy flowed, and the volume rose as connections were renewed. Women recognized one another and embraced fondly. They came from near and far to share past memories and present journeys. This was a celebration of some partners in mission who desire to continue together into whatever the future holds.
¹ We are grateful to Mary McGlone, CSJ, for permission to use and adapt excerpts throughout this timeline from Comunidad par el Mundo, Chapters 1-3 © 2004, (Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet)and to the Sisters of St. Joseph of Orange, CA, for the use of excerpts from, The Little Design © Providence St. Joseph Health Care, 2018.
² Jean-Pierre Médaille, SJ, The Règlements of the Daughters of Saint Joseph, circa 1646
³ McGlone, Comunidad par el Mundo, 90
⁴ Carol L. Coburn and Martha Smith, Spirited Lives: How Nuns Shaped Catholic Culture and AmericanLife, 1836-1920, Chapter 2 Creating an American Identity. © 1999 (The University of North Carolina Press), 64-65 passim
⁵ The Pilot, on the occasion of the Silver Jubilee of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston, October 1, 1898.
⁶ A Sister of St. Joseph, Boston [unnamed], Just Passing Through: 1973-1843, © 1943, 80.
⁷ Rev. Thomas Magennis, Annual Report of the Boston School for the Deaf, 1909 (Randolph, MA: Archives, Boston School for the Deaf, 1909).
⁸ Anna Mary Kelley, CSJ, and Joan M. McCarthy, CSJ, At the Dawn of a New Age, chapter 3 (Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston, A forum envisioning the future of the past, May 17, 1998), 12
⁹ The Mystical Body of Christ and Mediator Dei
¹⁰ Words of Cardinal Richard J. Cushing – Preface in booklet commemorating 75th anniversary of the Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston.
¹¹ Perfectae caritatis
¹² See Mary McGlone, CSJ, Called by the Dear Neighbor, pg 452
¹³ See “Telling the Story” March, 1997, by Anna Mary Kelly, CSJ – archdiocesan Archives.
¹⁴ Carlotta Gilarde, CSJ, consultant
¹⁵ McGlone, Called by the Dear Neighbor, pg 307
¹⁶ Rerum Novarum, the 1891 encyclical of Pope Leo XIII, is an open letter, that addressed the condition of the working classes.